Much of the north and west of Belize has limestone rocks. Limestone is made from the skeletal remains of sea creatures. This shows that much of what is now Belize used to be under water. Most of the limestone rocks of Belize formed between 200 and 50 million years ago. Cave systems and underground rivers are common in limestone landscapes.
The oldest rocks in Belize are those of the Maya Mountains. These include granite, which is an igneous rock.
ALluvial deposits occur when rivers carry small rocks down from the mountains and deposit them lower down. The Alluvial deposits in Beize are about 1 million years old. They are rich in nutrients, which is why they are good for farming.
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